Farnham Castle's Bishops of Winchester
For most of its history Farnham Castle was the property of the Bishops of Winchester. It was rarely a home. Its location made it more a frequently-visited place for rest and recreation.
At one time the Diocese of Winchester stretched from Southwark in London to Taunton in Somerset, and from the south bank of the River Thames to the southern coast of England, and also included the Channel Islands. Bishops therefore spent much of their time on the move, particularly on the road between their palace in Winchester and their palace in Southwark.
Not only did Farnham provide a resting place, it also provided opportunities to hunt. Deer and boar were abundant in local forests and parkland, and Bishops could enjoy the sport themselves and invite those they sought to impress to join them. A comfortable palace in which to entertain those that could influence a career or personal wealth and status became a necessity.
At the time of the Norman invasion in 1066, William the Conqueror inherited an Anglo-Saxon Bishop of Winchester, Bishop Stigand. Stigand was not favoured in Rome, but he enjoyed the wealth and status of being both Bishop of Winchester and, at the same time, Archbishop of Canterbury. Holding two such primary posts was classified as 'pluralism' by the Church and counter to papal law. Having been given and ignoring numerous commands to relinquish one or the other See, Stigand was eventually excommunicated by no fewer than five successive Popes.
William was supported by Rome in his claim to the English throne despite Harold Godwinson having been hastily crowned king on the death of Edward the Confessor. With William's success at Hastings that support needed to be repaid. In 1070, having been given time to establish control over his new kingdom, William received a visit from papal legates who travelled from Rome to insist upon Stigand's removal. Stigand was relieved of all his offices and also of his considerable personal wealth and imprisoned at Winchester where he died in early 1072.
Stigand as represented in the Bayeux tapestry
The first Norman Bishop of Winchester, Walkelin had previously been William's Chaplain in France and possibly also served at Rouen Cathedral, perhaps as a clerk. Within two years of being appointed he set about building Winchester Cathedral. In 1093 it was handed over to the monks together with the relics of St.Swithun. In 1094 the old Minster (which the cathedral replaced) was demolished. Some of elements of the cathedral that can be attributed to this time are still evident today. Walkelin died in January 1098 and was buried inside his newly-constructed church.
William Giffard (1100-1129)
Appointed by Henry I he made further improvements to the work on Winchester Cathedral begun by Walkelin. But he is better known for commencing work on Southwark Cathedral, the most easterly point of the Winchester diocese, as well as founding a religious house at Taunton, at the opposite end of the diocese. In 1128 he gave land on the banks of the River Wey in Farnham to the Cistercian Order to establish their first monastery in England, Waverley Abbey. Within 60 years of its foundation the Abbey was home to 70 monks and 120 lay brothers. It was dissolved by Henry VIII in 1536. It is quite possible that Farnham Castle's original Keep was built in Giffard's time.
Henry of Blois (1129-1171)
Henry came to England from Cluny Abbey in 1126 to become Abbot of Glastonbury Abbey. He was the grandson of William I and a prolific builder with a keen interest in architecture. His appointment as Bishop of Winchester provided the opportunity to realise his interests. In total he built six castles, including Wolvesey Castle in Winchester and, in 1138 it is said that he built Farnham Castle. This Castle seems likely to have been the construction of a stone Keep on an already militarised site. As well as castles, Henry de Blois, added to the newly-consecrated Winchester Cathedral, built Winchester Palace in Southwark and began work on the Hospital of St.Cross in Winchester.
He sponsored the Winchester Bible and Psalter and in 1135, on the death of Henry I without a living male heir, successfully promoted his brother Stephen of Blois to the English throne. With Henry's daughter Matilda, being 'female', and unable to gain support from the English Barons to be crowned Queen, Stephen's accession represented a compromise solution. It still provoked a civil war between Matilda's followers and opponents. On Stephen's death, with no surviving male, the monarchy reverted to Henry, Matilda's first son from her marriage to Geoffrey of Anjou.
In 1139 Henry of Blois was appointed Papal Legate, giving him seniority over even the Archbishop of Canterbury and considerable additional sources of wealth.
Shortly after Stephen's death and the accession of Matilda's son as Henry II, Henry of Blois returned to Cluny where he died in 1171 and is buried in Winchester's Cathedral.
Site of Henry of Blois Keep - Farnham Castle
Representation of Henry of Blois and tomb in Winchester Cathedral
Peter des Roches (1205-1238)
Peter des Roches was a firm supporter of King John and served him as Bishop and advisor throughout John's life. His strength was his administrative skill and ability, first recognised by King Richard who appointed him Lord Chamberlain. His military skills and experience were enhanced by having fought in the Sixth Crusade. He fought for King John at the Battle of Lincoln in the First Barons' War, leading a division of the royal army.
By 1208 Peter des Roches made significant improvements to Farnham's Castle, strengthening its defences, following the original Keep's destruction by Henry II. At a time of considerable unrest in John's kingdom, the motte mound at Farnham Castle was surrounded by a strong, stone shell-wall. Round towers were built for improved lines of defence, and its entrance protected by a gateway with drawbridge and portcullis. Around the same time, a new Great Hall and adjoining kitchens were added at Farnham together with private accommodation for the Bishop when in residence.
Peter des Roches' detailed records of expenditure, income and assets (held as parchment pipe rolls for each of the administrative areas within the See of Winchester) remain available for study today at Hampshire Records Office.
With Peter de Rivaux he exercised royal powers for the 9-year-old King Henry III after the death of King John in 1216. These he held until 1234 when he fell out of favour with both Henry III and most Barons. Peter des Roches died in June 1238 and is buried in Winchester Cathedral.
Artist impressions of Farnham Castle and its Great Hall as built by Peter des Roches
Peter des Roches tomb effigy, Winchester Cathedral
William de Raley (1240-1250)
Held a number of administrative, legal and, later, ecclesiastical posts before being appointed Bishop of Winchester. He was never favoured by Henry III but was supported by Pope Innocent IV. His time as bishop improved relationships between Farnham Castle and the town's residents living below it, rather than any changes to the Castle's fabric.
Aymer de Valence (1250-1260)
Aymer de Valence, together with his brother William, were half-brothers of Henry III. The growing influence of Henry's young wife (Eleanor of Provence) and her Savoyard family and supporters encouraged him to invite Aymer, his brother William and a number of their friends to help redress the balance at court. Aymer was just 23 when he was elected (with much pressure by the King) to the See of Winchester. He was illiterate, secular and, like many at court, spoke no English.
In 1254 he had plans to make changes in Farnham and two of his existing arches for a new building remain on one side of the Norman chapel as evidence of some proposed additions. But his plan was never to materialise. Following a financial dispute with the Archbishop of Canterbury he tasked his men to set fire to Lambeth Palace. The Archbishop not being in residence, they captured instead one of his agents and brought him to Farnham. He was eventually released and quickly sought safety with the monks at Waverley Abbey.
Aymer was also said to have been involved in the death of one of Queen Eleanor's servants - or perhaps an influential Baron's servant. Either way, Aymer was forced out of office and exiled abroad by powerful enemies. His plans for new building works in Farnham were left incomplete. His appeal to Pope Alexander IV for reinstatement as Bishop of Winchester was supported, but he died and was buried in Paris in 1260 on his return to England. His heart is said to be buried in Winchester Cathedral.
John Gervais (1262-1268)
In 1263, in response to Simon de Montfort threatening Farnham from nearby Odiham Castle, Bishop John Gervaise kept a small garrison of soldiers at Farnham Castle. This marks the first time that the Castle was known to have been garrisoned since the time when the throne of the 9-year-old King Henry Ill was under threat from France.
As further security in case of siege, Gervais had the well in the Keep rebuilt and enlarged. Additional provisions were brought in and some of the buildings inside the Keep were improved so that occupants defending themselves could survive, even if access to the facilities in the Bailey was blocked.
John of Pontoise (1282-1304)
Seeing similar defensive needs to those partly satisfied by Bishop Gervais, John of Pontoise spent more money replicating in the Keep the facilities previously only available within the Bailey below it.
Adam Orleton (1333-1345)
Orleton's contributions to the fabric of the Castle were limited; he opened up the east wall in the Bishop's Camera to provide a doorway and staircase down to the Bailey. It is also thought that he started work on a new chapel, which seems to have been demolished in the 15th century leaving only traces - evident from archaeological geophysical analysis.
Orleton's place in history is greater than his castle additions. Having preached against Edward II's reputed homosexual relationships with Piers Gaveston and, later, Hugh Dispenser, he convinced Edward that he should abdicate his throne in favour of his son. Edward's gruesome death in captivity is now challenged and indications are that he was spirited out of the country to live a monastic life. Either way, Orleton was influential in a change of monarch and was well rewarded for his part in it.
William Edington (1345-1366)
It was left to Edington to complete Orleton's work on the new chapel, but his time as Bishop of Winchester coincided with the arrival of the Black Death in England. In the Spring of 1348 the Plague killed nearly half of Farnham's population. John Runwick was Edington's Reeve at the castle and had to deal with the problem of 'heriots'. The heriot form of taxation required that, on the death of one of the Bishop's tenants, the next of kin would present one of their best farm animals to the castle. In normal years just a handful, mostly cattle or sheep, would be given. The Plague found Edington's estate, like many others in England, awash with animals, some 200 in one year, which had very little market value in such times. Runwick increased the castle's capacity to keep vast numbers of animals of any value for the bishop.
William Edington effigy, Winchester Cathedral
Despite the trauma brought by the Plague, Edward III inaugurated the Most Noble Order of the Garter in 1348. This was mainly an order of chivalry echoing the legend of King Arthur, and rewarding those who fought with him and with his son, the Black Prince, in France and Scotland. The Bishop of Winchester was appointed its prelate and so Edington was the first to hold that office. From that time onwards each Bishop of Winchester was allowed to display his own coat of arms within the Garter Seal. This is evident as you walk around the Bishop's Palace at Farnham today.
Edington also served Edward III as Keeper of the Wardrobe, Treasurer and Chancellor.
William of Wykeham (1366-1404)
Born of humble origins he is perhaps better known as the founder of Winchester College and New College, Oxford University. He was also involved as a royal surveyor in the development of Windsor Castle. During his time at Farnham he replaced the roof above the Bishop's Camera with a fine scissor-braced roof which still exists today. He was truly a bishop of great royal influence and councillor and Chancellor for Edward III and Richard II.
Courtesy of New College, Oxford
Model of camera roof
Henry Beaufort (1404-1447)
One of the most wealthy Bishops of Winchester, Cardinal Henry Beaufort's main legacy is widely reported as presiding over the trial of Joan of Arc. Despite Paul Delaroche's depiction of his interrogation of the Maid (shown here) it seems not to be correct. Beaufort's name does not appear on any list of those who sat in judgement over her. It is also said that having viewed her charred bones after execution he had them burnt for a second time to ensure that nothing remained but the finest ash. Ironically, only feet away from his tomb in Winchester Cathedral a statue of Joan was erected.
Beaufort's wealth was such that he acted as banker for Henry VI, deriving his considerable income from the See of Winchester, his private estates and from the wool trade. He died in 1447 in Wolvesey Castle, Winchester.
William Waynflete (1447-1486)
Between 1470 and 1475 William Waynflete had the old porch entrance to the Palace removed and a new, larger and grander brick entrance and tower constructed. This is the tower we see today looking up Castle Street from the town. Waynflete was brought to the See of Winchester from Lincoln. He acted as executor of the will of Ralph, 3rd Lord Cromwell and Treasurer of England. The Cromwell home was Tattershall Castle in Lincolnshire, also built of brick and in a similar style to Farnham's new tower. It predates Farnham by just 20 years, and its influence is clear to see.
The new tower originally incorporated a portcullis, but it more importantly added increased accommodation and administration space. With the transition to more peaceful times, buildings such as Farnham Castle changed from a defensive or military role to one of stately home. Threats to peace were now more likely to come from beyond than within England. Waynflete's building work illustrates the change.
Peter Courtenay (1487-1492)
Courtenay accompanied Henry Tudor back from exile after Henry's victory over Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. He benefitted from this by being awarded the Bishopric of Winchester. This close relationship is demonstrated by Henry's entrusting his first, newly-born son, Arthur, to Courtenay's care at Farnham for most of the first seven years of Arthur's life. His motivation for doing so is unclear, perhaps because Arthur was born in Winchester and not London. It is often said that Arthur was a sickly child, though this is not a proven fact. He did, however, die young, at the age of 15 - less than a year after his marriage to Catherine of Aragon in 1501. As a result of Arthur spending many years in Farnham, his brother Henry came to know the place well. Even after Arthur's death and as King Henry VIII, he visited Farnham, no doubt to enjoy the hunting opportunities it offered.
It is possible that the Tudor wing at Farnham Castle was built to meet the additional accommodation needs of these busy times.
Richard Fox (1501-1528)
Tudor connections with Winchester remained strong throughout the reign of Henry VII. Bishop Fox was given the See of Winchester around the time of Arthur's death. Fox was made godfather to the young Prince Henry even before coming to Winchester. Like Bishop Courtenay, he fought at Bosworth for Henry Tudor and became a trusted advisor to his young son, even when king.
Although supportive of the new king's marriage to Catherine of Aragon, his influence waned with the rise of Cardinal Wolsey. In his later years at Farnham his eyesight weakened and the steps that lead from the town to the castle, with their regular pattern of seven steps and seven strides, were constructed to give him a means of determining his way back to his Palace.
Thomas Wolsey (1528-1529)
Cardinal Wolsey was quick to rise to power and even quicker to fall from grace, at least as far as Henry VIII was concerned. Before becoming Bishop of Winchester he served as Archbishop of York, Papal Legate, Cardinal and Lord Chancellor of England. His failure to obtain the annulment of Henry's marriage to Catherine of Aragon left him vulnerable. Summoned to London to face trial for treason, with its probably inevitable end on the block, he died en route and not under the axe.
Stephen Gardiner (1531-1551 & 1553-1555)
Bishop Gardiner is the only person to have held the office of Bishop of Winchester twice. Initially he was made Wolsey's successor by Henry VIII, having found a way of ending the king's marriage to Catherine without requiring acceptance by the Pope. Winchester was his reward, although he had also served Wolsey and represented the king in several embassies to Rome, France and Germany. Whilst supportive of Divine Rule he remained close in his beliefs to those of the Catholic Church.
As such, some three years after Henry's death, he was removed from Winchester to the Tower of London. Edward Seymour, acting for the young King Edward VI, brought forward radical protestant reforms which Gardiner opposed. In his place Bishop John Ponet was appointed to Winchester.
The short life of the new king meant that after just two years out of office he returned to Winchester at the instigation of Queen Mary. Gardiner's stance against protestant reform made him, in her eyes, the right man for the job, as well as being made Lord Chancellor. His new royal support made him Mary's choice to officiate at her wedding to King Philip of Spain at Winchester. This caused her to stay at Farnham as Gardiner's guest for close to two weeks before her marriage. But in 1555, just two years later, he became ill and died.
Gardiner's chantry tomb,
John Ponet (1551-1553)
In the secular world Ponet was a leading Greek language academic, but also a mathematician whose designs for sundials were used at Hampton Court and Queen's College, Cambridge. As a theologian he wrote and preached widely against the papacy. His Protestant stance and friendship with Edward Seymour (the power behind the young Edward VI throne) made him a strong contender for the post of Bishop of Winchester after Gardiner. He convinced those in power to accept marriage for priests, but married himself before it became law. Unfortunately for him his new wife was already married to a butcher in Northampton. Forced to divorce his first choice and pay compensation to the butcher, he married a second time three months later.
John White (1556-1559)
Farnham-born but a rare castle resident, White was Queen Mary's choice of Bishop of Winchester following Gardiner's death. His 'claim to fame', if it can be called such, ended in his removal from office, and imprisonment, by Queen Elizabeth I. Being a Catholic, he showed his disapproval of a more Protestant succession in his sermon at Queen Mary's funeral when he said "a living dog is better than a dead lion". Unsurprisingly, Elizabeth took exception to his phraseology. He left prison a broken man and died shortly after. Having upset the queen, his body had to be secretly buried in Winchester Cathedral without the queen's knowledge. His tomb is marked with the stone shown here.
Robert Horne (1560-1580)
Unusually for a Bishop of Winchester, Horne's time in Farnham was one as a prison guard. Being a strong Protestant, he both supported Queen Elizabeth and kept John Leslie, Bishop of Ross away from execution by imprisoning him at Farnham Castle. Leslie was suspected of being involved in the plot to depose Queen Elizabeth and install Mary Queen of Scots as Queen of England. Ross managed to work his way back into Elizabeth's favour, though not sufficiently to avoid being forced into exile abroad.
Thomas Bilsen (1597-1616)
Although one of a number of Bishops to host Queen Elizabeth at Farnham, most of his time as Bishop of Winchester was spent in the reign of King James I. James was such a frequent visitor to Farnham, coming mostly to enjoy the hunting here, that he rented the total Castle complex and land from Bishop Bilsen for the whole of his remaining time as Bishop of Winchester.
Lancelot Andrewes (1618-1626)
Andrewes is best known for his significant contribution to the King James Bible. A significant scholar and academic as well as a pious priest, he was particularly well-suited to the task. He spent much of his time as Bishop residing in Farnham. He outlived King James and entertained the new King Charles I at Farnham Castle for three days in 1620, at the astonishing cost of £2,000. His considerable skills as an orator and writer are best illustrated by King Charles having ninety-six of Andrewes' sermons printed and published. Andrewes is also noted for translating and writing the words of Psalm 23.
Andrewes memorial, Winchester Cathedral Choir
Brian Duppa (1660-1662)
He was the first Bishop of Winchester after the Civil War and after the abolition of the Episcopacy by Cromwell. Duppa had previously been tutor to the young Charles II and Chaplain to his father. By the end of the Civil War the Bishop's Palaces in Southwark and Winchester had been demolished. Bishop Duppa spent £1,200 on restoring Farnham, which although in very poor condition, was at least in a state that could be repaired. The work was too major to be completed for him to enjoy in his short time as bishop. It fell to his successor, George Morley, to bring the Palace at Farnham back to a habitable standard.
George Morley (1662-1684)
During the war years King Charles II could only live an exiled existence in Holland and France and hope for the imminent restoration of his crown. George Morley was one of the leading members of the clergy travelling with him as he sought sympathetic royal hosts in Europe to make his situation tolerable. As a trusted supporter of the king, Morley was sent to England to negotiate the return of Charles. In 1662, following the death of Bishop Duppa, and as a reward for his loyalty, Charles made Morley Bishop of Winchester. The problem of what to do with Farnham Castle became largely his responsibility. The temptation to allow nature to take over may have been a consideration. With three other former Palaces having equal, if not worse, post-war restoration problems, and Duppa having already started work at Farnham, Morley’s decision to continue this work was perhaps predictable.
Portraits show Morley as somewhat ruddy-faced, with a doleful, penetrative stare. A neatly-cropped, greying beard contrasts with seemingly less controllable hair. His reputation is that of accomplished academic and theologian with a fundamental, bible-based faith. When preaching he seemed intent on communicating his full knowledge and mastery of his selected theme. His sermon at King Charles II’s Coronation in 1661 covered 62 pages when printed and took about four hours to deliver. Samuel Pepys thought the sermon dreadful, though he was still uncomfortable with the sniggering of some of those present. As a result, those pleased to have been invited to witness the ceremony probably left Westminster Abbey feeling less honoured and more exhausted by the experience.
Perhaps with the encouragement of King Charles, Morley undertook to invest in a major programme of modification and refurbishment at Farnham. Despite its condition the Castle still offered the same attractions as a location for a residence and place of recreation as it did centuries before the war. Following his time as guest at Louis XIV’s court at the Palace of Versailles, it is thought that Charles had designs on creating a similar (if he could raise the money) equivalent extravagance at Winchester. Farnham may well have featured in his plans, as well as Morley’s, as a potential stop-over on inevitable journeys to and from London. Parliament’s agreement, which Charles, like his executed father relied on for financial support, was always unlikely for any such expensive delusions.
Much of what can be seen when visiting the Bishop’s Palace today is the result of Morley’s accomplishments. Spending some £12,000 over a period of nearly twenty years, he changed the Medieval Great Hall raised its roof and floor and truncated its length. At one end a new wall supported an impressive grand staircase leading up to the Bishop’s private apartment (the Bishop’s Camera) and also to a new chapel. The open-fronted galleries in the Tudor wing of the building, used for visitors’ accommodation, were enclosed to reduce exposure to inclement weather. Bridging works were added to link what were a number of separate sections of the Palace.
Having made Farnham a comfortable and elegant place to end his days, Morley elected to retreat into an 8 ft by 8 ft cell in the Castle, sleeping on a stone slab.
Morley's coat-of-arms, Morley Chapel, and Grand Staircase, Farnham Castle
Morley's Cell Farnham Castle
Peter Mews (1684-1706)
Mews was Bishop of Winchester at a time when James II faced a rebellion to challenge his Catholic sympathies, a rebellion led by James, Duke of Monmouth. In 1685, at the age of 66, Mews fought for the King at the Battle of Sedgemoor and sustained a wound to his left cheek, thereafter covered in a black wax, hence his nickname of 'Patch' Mews.
He created an orchard at the top of the Keep which lasted more than 200 years, though not in evidence today.
Sir Jonathan Trelawny (1707-1721)
Sir Jonathan Trelawny was a Cornishman who defied James II’s attempts to reintroduce Catholicism and was briefly imprisoned in the Tower for his pains. Under Trelawny, the Castle became the focus of much local hostility. The Civil War, and the subsequent neglect of the Castle, led to much poaching in Farnham Park. Trelawny tried to put a stop to it, and also to reassert the old feudal privileges of the Bishop, all of which led to his local unpopularity.
John Thomas (1761-1781)
Bishop John Thomas succeeded Bishop Hoadley. Thomas had been the tutor to George III, with whom he got on well. The King often visited Farnham Castle and on one occasion turned up with Queen Charlotte, and all 12 of his children. Bishop Thomas also employed the young William Cobbett as a gardener.
Brownlow North (1781-1820)
Brownlow North was made Bishop of Winchester at the age of forty. His rise to this senior level in the church at such a relatively young age - having also previously been Bishop of Lichfield and Bishop of Worcester - was widely acknowledged as brought about by his brother, Lord North, Prime Minister at that time With a similar dash of nepotism, Brownlow North used his position to help a great number of relatives obtain positions within the diocese. The scandal brought about by this was well reported in the press and commented upon by contemporary satirists.
During his forty years as bishop he ensured that both the Palace and Castle gardens were maintained to the highest standard. Brownlow North's wife, Henrietta, whom he married in 1741, had three Lebanon Cedar trees planted in the Castle grounds and others near the Ranger's house in Farnham Park. Two of those at the Castle were severely damaged in the hurricane of 1987.
Brownlow North memorial,
Charles Sumner (1827-1869)
Sumner was a renowned scholar, writer and philanthropist. During his forty-plus years as Bishop of Winchester he built nearly 200 churches. His stance on some local, political issues were not always popular with the people of Farnham but, nevertheless, he was much respected. He suffered a stroke in 1869, but was allowed to live at the Castle until his death, nearly five years later. Although he could have been buried in Winchester Cathedral he chose instead to be buried in the Parish Church of St.John's in Upper Hale, Farnham. His grave is marked by a modest headstone.
Samuel Wilberforce (1869-1873)
Serving for just over three years as Bishop of Winchester, Wilberforce never took top residence at Farnham Castle. He was commonly known as "Soapy Sam", having been described as 'unctuous and oleaginous' by Disraeli. He challenged Charles Darwin's theories on Natural Selection and famously lost a debate with Julian Huxley on the subject. His death, in 1873, followed a fall from his horse near Dorking in Surrey. But despite his limited time in office, and not being buried in the Winchester Cathedral, his memorial there is about the largest and most elaborate of all its bishops.
Harold Browne (1873-1891)
It was Bishop Browne who added the motto above the magnificent 17th Century fireplace but, despite his 17 years at Farnham, he left little other visible evidence of his residence there.
Anthony Thorold (1891-1895)
Unlike Bishop Browne, Bishop Thorold lived at Farnham Castle for less than five years. He still spent a considerable amount of his own money modernising the Palace facilities and adding the stained glass windows in the Great Hall and Bishop's Camera.
Edward Talbot (1911-1923)
Bishop Edward Talbot had three sons, two of whom were military chaplains in the First World War. The third son, Gilbert Lyttleton, joined the 7th Rifle Brigade and was killed in Belgium in July 1915 at the age of 23. The Reverend Neville Talbot, rescued his brother's body from No Man's Land and officiated over its burial.
As a memorial to his son, Bishop Talbot founded a place for the rest and recreation of troops returning from the front. It was named Talbot House in memory of his son, and run by the Reverend Tubby Clayton. Talbot House became known as Toc-H, using the shorthand of army signallers.
The Morley Chapel in the Bishop's Palace contains a small brass plaque as a memorial to Gilbert.
Waverley Abbey, Farnham